# Balanced Search Structures

Content Note

Please read Binary Trees before continuing!

**Balanced Binary Search Trees** are an even more specific subcategory of binary trees that have an important property: **they are always bushy.**

## B Trees (2-4 Trees) #

**The basic idea:** Nodes can hold multiple values now! When nodes have too many values, we will split it.

A **2-4 tree** is named such because each parent can have **2 to 4 children.** Another constraint we will put on is a **limit on the** **number of items allowed in a single node**, so that we can guarantee that searching a single node will always be $\Theta(n).$

**Adding Values to a B-Tree**
#

Adding values to a B Tree can be a bit tricky because we need to make sure all the properties are still followed. Here are some example scenarios:

If a node already has 2 or more children, place the new value in one of its existing children.

If a node is full (reaches the limit), we must **split the node** by **moving one value up to the parent** and **creating another child node**. Here, we’ll use a limit of **3**.

### Properties of B Trees #

- Searching in a single node is
**constant runtime**since the limit is a constant. - All leaves must be the
**same distance**from the root. - A non-leaf node with
**k**items must have**k+1**children. - The height of a B tree is guaranteed to be $\Theta(\log(n))$ because it is bushy.

## Red-Black Trees and Tree Rotation #

**The basic idea:** Let’s try to represent B trees in a **binary tree format.** That means that every parent can only have 2 children! In order to do this, we’ll **add an extra color property** to each node.

**Black nodes** are just like any normal binary tree node, but **Red nodes** represent the nodes in B Trees that have **more than one value.** For example, let’s convert the B Tree we were working with before into a RB Tree.

In order to make our lives easier, we’ll restrict our Red Black trees into **left leaning red black trees** which can **only have red nodes on the left.**

**Tree Rotation**
#

In order to ensure that adding new nodes won’t break the Red Black Tree structure, we will use a concept called **tree rotation** which swaps around nodes. There are two rotations, a **left rotation** and a **right rotation,** which move a child node up to replace its parent. For example, a **left rotation** moves the **right node up and left** to replace the parent.

A “left rotation on 7” looks like this:

Notice that the **8** gets moved to be a **right child** of **7** after the rotation! This is necessary to preserve the binary tree structure.

A “right rotation on 7” looks like this:

Here, the **6** gets moved to be a **left child** of **7.**

If you want to see how these rotations can be implemented into the `insert`

algorithm,
try the homework on implementing a LLRB Tree! Below is a brief outline on how insert works:

**Always add values to a leaf node as a red node first.**Follow normal sorted binary tree rules.- If the link is leaning right, rotate the tree to make it left leaning.
- If a node already has a red link to the left, temporarily add it to the right also as a red link.
- Then, flip the color of all links connected to the node (if previously black, turn red; if previously red, turn black)
- Might need to fix right-leaning red nodes that are created as a result

- If a node has red links to both parent and child, rotate it such that it becomes the above case, and then handle that case like you did before.

### Properties of Red Black Trees #

Like B Trees, Red Black Trees have some important properties that allow them to be easily distinguishable.

- Red Black trees have a
**one-to-one correspondence**with B trees. That means for every Red Black tree, there is exactly one B Tree that represents the same connections. This also means that a Red Black Tree will have the same runtimes as their corresponding B Trees. (Take a linear algebra course to learn more about isomorphisms 🙂 ) **Every node must have the same number of black nodes in between itself and the root.**This might be a bit surprising at first, but remember that their corresponding B Tree is always bushy, and red links mean a multi-value node in a B Tree.